Word List. Unit 22
- A coward is a person who lacks courage to do risky or dangerous things.
A firefighter cannot be a coward. They have to be able to act quickly.
- To delete something means to remove or erase written material.
Several lines had been deleted from her speech.
- If something is firsthand, then it is from an original source.
If you want firsthand knowledge, ask someone who saw it.
- If someone is earnest, then they are honest.
The child was very earnest when she told her mother how she broke the dish.
- If something is ethnic, then it is related to a group with a similar culture.
Many sections of the city are home to different ethnic communities.
- To exclude someone means to not accept them into a group.
Carol was excluded from the contest because her friend was a judge.
- If someone is fluent in a language, then they are able to speak it very well.
She was so fluent in German that you’d have thought she was from Germany.
- If something is imperial, then it is of, or related to an empire.
These old imperial coins were once used in the Roman Empire.
- If something is inclusive, then it is open to all groups and people in society.
A more inclusive event would have allowed children to attend.
- A legislature is the section of a government that makes laws.
The senator had served ten years in the national legislature.
- If something is linguistic, then it is concerned with language.
A linguistic way of studying culture focuses on words within that culture.
- If someone is monolingual, then they speak only one language.
In today’s global economy, being monolingual limits your opportunities.
- Nationality is an identity based on the nation from which you come.
His nationality is German, but he speaks French, Spanish, and Korean.
- A patriot is someone who loves, supports, and defends their country.
Every year young patriots join their countries’ militaries.
- To prosecute someone means to take legal action against them.
They were prosecuted for fishing in the river without a permit.
- If something is racial, then it is related to a race or races.
The differences between racial groups are physical characteristics and culture.
- If something is solemn, then it is serious and honest.
The professor preferred a solemn relationship between him and his students.
- Solidarity is a union formed from common responsibilities or interests.
All the citizens came together in a show of solidarity to create change.
- Tact is the ability to avoid offending people when dealing with problems.
Since both sides would not agree, it required someone with tact to make peace.
- To undermine someone means to betray or weaken their efforts or authority.
The documents helped to undermine the workers’trust in their bosses’ honesty.
The Editor’s Choice
A newspaper editor sat at his desk and stared at the flashing cursor on his computer’s screen. He didn’t know if he should delete the article he had just written or go ahead and publish it. He was scared and filled with doubt. The empire had passed a new law stating that citizens could only use the imperial language. The editor disagreed with the law and decided to write an article about why it was wrong. He felt that the new law excluded people of different nationalities and racial and ethnic backgrounds. He had firsthand knowledge of what it feels like not to be fluent in the imperial language because he was from a remote part of the empire.
He felt that the empire shouldn’t be monolingual and should be more inclusive. Yet he was afraid that he would get in trouble for having this belief. Many would say that he was not a patriot—that he didn’t love the empire. But he didn’t wish to undermine the authority of the empire. He wanted to argue that the empire could be stronger if it accepted people of various cultures and beliefs. At last, he decided to stop being a coward and to be earnest about how he felt. He wrote the article. It wasn’t rude or angry, but rather, very solemn and intelligent.
The next day it was published in all the papers. Everyone was impressed by his tact and showed solidarity with his ideas. He expected to be arrested any day, but the police never came. Surprisingly, instead of being prosecuted, he became a hero. The legislature changed the law, and people from many linguistic backgrounds praised him.