Author Archives: Александр

Exam of Conditionals


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Notes: Notes


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Right answer:



The Demon’s Bridge

  • A burden is a serious or difficult responsibility.
    Children who do not behave are a burden to their parents.
  • To compromise is to agree to something that is not exactly what you want.
    We both compromised about the game we decided to play.
  • To craft something is to make it using skill.
    She crafted the bookcase out of solid pine wood and then painted it.
  • A crook is someone who is not honest or who commits crimes.
    The manager was arrested by the police for being a crook.
  • Currency is the form of money used in a certain place.
    Elizabeth had to exchange her dollars for foreign currency.
  • An enigma is someone or something that is mysterious or hard to understand.
    The theft of the paintings is an enigma to the investigators.
  • When people orthings are fragile, they are not strong and can be damaged easily.
    The fragile glassware was carefully packed into boxes.
  • A hybrid is a mixture of different things or styles.
    In Greek mythology, a centaur is a hybrid of a man and a horse.
  • Innocence is a lack of experience of difficult or complex things in life.
    Everyone who met her found her innocence to be charming.
  • To merge two things is to combine them into one whole thing.
    The storm clouds merged into one large menacing cloud that filled the sky.
  • When something is moderate, it is not too big ortoo small in size oramount.
    It takes a moderate amount of patience to be around small children all day.
  • To overwhelm is to exist in such a large amount that someone cannot deal with it.
    The amount of homework her teacher assigned has overwhelmed her.
  • A perception of a situation is a way of thinking about it or understanding it.
    Since he couldn’t see, his perception of life was much different than mine.
  • A reunion is the meeting of people or things that have been separated.
    Every summer we have a family reunion at the lake.
  • To rig something means to dishonestly arrange it.
    The bad politician rigged the election so that he would win.
  • A shiver is a shaking movement the body makes when someone is cold or scared.
    I got shivers on my way home because it was so cold.
  • When someone is sociable, they are friendly.
    Many of my good friends are sociable, but I am shy.
  • When someone is talkative, they talk a lot.
    My aunt is very talkative whenever she is on the phone.
  • To tow something is to pull it.
    The truck was towing a trailer behind it.
  • To tramp is to put your feet down in a loud, heavy way as you walk.
    The baby tramped across the floor as he was learning to walk.

The Demon’s Bridge

A young woman’s cow had crossed the river in the morning when the water level was moderate. But when the woman returned with her dog to get the cow, she was overwhelmed by how high the water had risen. Even if she crossed, she still couldn’t tow her cow back through the river. “What am I going to do?” she wondered. Suddenly, a man appeared across the river. “A fragile young lady like you shouldn’t have to struggle across a river,” he said. “I’ll build you a bridge.” The man was an enigma. The young woman’s perception of him was that he was a sociable person. He was talkative, yet something was strange about him. “I don’t want to be a burden to you, sir,” the woman replied.

“Don’t worry,” he told her as he began crafting a bridge. He merged the pieces of the bridge together with amazing speed. Soon, it was finished. “Oh, but how can I pay you for your work? Let’s compromise. I am sure that we can find a fair solution. What do you think?” The woman asked. “The only currency I need is the first living thing that crosses the bridge,” the man replied. She thought, “This deal sounds weird. Maybe he’s actually a river demon.” She shivered because she realized that he had taken advantage of her innocence and rigged the deal somehow. But she had a plan of her own. She pulled a piece of bread from her pocket and threw it across the bridge. Her dog ran after it.

“The dog is the first living thing across the bridge,” she said to the man. The man was angry. He suddenly changed into a hybrid of a human and a fish. “You crook!” he shouted. “You tricked me. I have no use for your dog!” He screamed and dove into the river. The woman tramped across the bridge to the other side and had a happy reunion with her dog and cow.

Jen’s New Job

  • If something is antique, it is very old and rare, and therefore valuable.
    My grandmother’s antique rocking chair is worth a lot of money.
  • An applicant is someone who writes a request to be considered for a job or prize.
    Lots of applicants came into the store when the job position became available.
  • An artifact is an old object made by humans that is historically interesting.
    We studied artifacts from an ancient Chinese settlement.
  • When something is authentic, it is not false or a copy of the original.
    lIlIe ate authentic Italian food on our vacation to Rome.
  • The chronology of a series of past events is when they happened.
    lIlIe learned the chronology of World War II in history class.
  • A diplomat is a representative of a country who works with another country.
    The Spanish diplomat discussed trade issues with officials in Peru.
  • An epic is a long book, poem, or movie about a period of time or a great event.
    The poet wrote an epic about the great discoveries of the past thousand years.
  • An excerpt is a short piece of writing or music taken from a larger piece.
    I didn’t listen to the entire symphony online, but I did play an excerpt.
  • A fossil is the hard remains of a prehistoric animal or plant.
    The expert arranged the fossils to build the skeleton of the dinosaur.
  • To humiliate someone means to make them feel ashamed and embarrassed.
    I was humiliated when I tripped and fell down in front of the whole school.
  • When a poem is considered lyric, it is written in a simple and direct style.
    I enjoy reading and creating my own lyric poetry.
  • Majesty is supreme greatness or authority.
    You should address the king and queen as your majesty.
  • The monarch of a country is the king, queen, emperor, or empress.
    The monarch lived in a beautiful palace with a grand gate.
  • To precede something means to come before it.
    The hurricane was preceded by a moment of still wind and clear sky.
  • When someone is punctual, they do something or arrive at the right time.
    My mother hates being late. She is the most punctual person I know.
  • To recruit people means to select them to join or work for an organization.
    We successfully recruited someone to be the new manager.
  • A refund is money given back to a person when an item is returned to a store.
    I asked for a refund because the shoes I bought were too tight.
  • A register is an official list or record of people or things.
    At a wedding there is register for all of the guests to sign.
  • Renown is the quality of being well known due to having done good things.
    Michael is a singer of great renown in New Zealand.
  • A tusk is a long, curved, pointed tooth of an elephant, boar, or walrus.
    Sadly, some people hunt elephants and remove their tusks to sell them.

Jen’s New Job

The history museum needed to recruit a new tour guide. The director interviewed dozens of applicants before he decided to hire Jen. She was chosen because she was friendly, punctual and had a great attitude. On her first day, Jen got to work and prepared to give her first tour. She looked at the names on the register. She saw that the Queen of England and a diplomat were visiting the museum. She thought, “It’s my very first day, and I have to impress a monarch! I hope I don’t humiliate myself in front of a person of such renown!”

Jen was nervous. She took a deep breath and said, “Hello, everyone! I’m going to talk to you about the chronology of ancient Egypt.” As she turned around to show the group some artifacts, she bumped into a fossil of an authentic elephant tusk. It fell to the ground and broke into a million pieces! “Oh no!” said Jen in a subtle voice. “I sure hope the rest of the tour goes better than this!” The rest of the tour did not go any better. She tripped over an antique vase and broke a piece off of it. As she was reading an excerpt from a lyric poem, she sneezed and tore a page of the epic.

After the tour, Jen approached the queen to apologize. She said, “I’m sorry, Your Majesty. I was a terrible tour guide. Let me give you a refund for the money you spent.” The queen laughed. She said, “I don’t want my money back, Jen. I loved the tour. You just have to be a little more careful and work hard to become the best at your job. Hard work precedes success.” Jen smiled and thanked the queen. She decided to be extra careful from then on. She was persistent and worked hard. In time, Jen became the best tour guide at the museum.

The Lottery

  • An aquarium is a building where fish and underwater animals are kept.
    We took a trip to the aquarium and saw a scary shark.
  • If something is arbitrary, it is not based on any plan or system, so it seems random.
    The classroom had many arbitrary rules that made me confused.
  • An autobiography is a true story of a person’s life written by that person.
    I read an autobiography about my favorite entertainer.
  • A convention is behavior that is considered to be common or polite.
    In the US, a popular convention is to shake hands when you meet someone.
  • If someone is gracious, then they are kind and helpful to those who need it.
    The operator was gracious enough to help me find his number.
  • To improve something means to make it better.
    He studied hard to improve his test scores from the previous year.
  • To insulate something means to protect it from heat, cold, or noise.
    People can conserve energy by insulating their houses.
  • To intrigue means to cause an interest in something or someone.
    Her mysterious past intrigued her new friend.
  • Longevity is the ability to live for a long time.
    Sea turtles have an amazing longevity.
  • To misplace something means to lose it.
    I misplaced my wallet, and I didn’t find it until a week later.
  • When children are naughty, they behave badly or do not do what they are told.
    The boy had to go to his room because he was being naughty.
  • A norm is a way of behaving that is considered normal in a particular society.
    Wearing a heavy coat all summer is not considered a norm in the desert.
  • An orangutan is a large ape with red and brown hair and long arms.
    Orangutans use their long arms to swing from trees.
  • To overload something means to put more things into it than it is meant to hold.
    If you overload the truck, it might crash.
  • Philanthropy is the act of helping others, without wanting anything in return.
    The wealthy business owner is well known for his acts of philanthropy.
  • To probe into something means to ask questions to discover facts about it.
    The bank probed into his financial history to see if he qualified fora loan.
  • A recipient of something is the person who receives it.
    I was the recipient of four phone calls today.
  • A reptile is a cold-blooded animal that lays eggs and has skin covered with scales.
    Lizards are my favorite type of reptile.
  • To thrive means to do well and be successful, healthy, or strong.
    He may be an old man, but he continues to thrive.
  • When something is ultimate, it is the final result or aim of a long series of events.
    By trying hard in school, I will reach my ultimate goal of becoming a doctor.

The Lottery

Joe was watching television when he heard a knock at the door. He thought, “Who could that be? It’s probably one of the naughty neighborhood children.” Joe stood up and walked to the door. When he opened it, he saw a beautiful woman. She said, “Good morning, Joe! I have great news. You’re the recipient of this check for one million dollars! You won the lottery!”

Joe couldn’t believe it. His mind was overloaded with emotions. Joe said, “Thankyou! Thankyou!” After he calmed down, Joe made a photocopy of the check in case he misplaced the original one. He sat and thought about what he wanted to do with the money. He didn’t want to spend it in an arbitrary way. Joe thought, “I know there are others who need this money more than I do. I’ve always loved animals, so I think I’ll buy things for the zoo!” Joe knew that the zoo was in bad shape. The cages were too small, and they weren’t insulated from the cold. Animals couldn’t thrive in such conditions.

He took out some stationery and wrote a letter to the zoo. He offered to help the zoo buy huge cages for the large mammals and reptiles. He offered to buy healthy food for the orangutans to increase their longevity. He even said that he would buy new glass walls for the aquarium because the old ones were cracked. Joe’s act of philanthropy intrigued the zookeeper. He probed Joe to learn why he spent his money to improve the zoo. It wasn’t a social convention for a person to be so gracious. Joe told the zookeeper, “I know it’s not the norm, but my ultimate decision to help these animals is better than anything I could have done for myself. If I ever write an autobiography, I will write that this was the happiest day of my life.”

The First Organ Transplant

  • To adapt means to change in orderto deal with a new situation or addition.
    When he went to the new town, he had to adapt to all the weather changes.
  • Biological describes the process of life and living things.
    In science, we learned about the biological process of bacterial growth.
  • When something is cellular, it relates to the cells of animals or plants.
    She used a microscope to see the activity at a cellular level.
  • When people are dynamic, they are lively and have creative ideas.
    The new, dynamic employee came up with a good way to juggle his work load.
  • A fantasy is a pleasant situation that people think about but is unlikely to happen.
    Becoming an astronaut is a fantasy shared by many children.
  • Heredity is the process of passing on features from parents to children.
    The boy’s face is similar to his father’s because of heredity.
  • When something is internal, it exists or happens inside a person, object, or place.
    We removed the outer case to reveal the computer’s internal wires.
  • When something is minimal, it is very small.
    My lazy husband does a minimal amount of workaround the house.
  • A pioneer is a person who is the first to discover or be involved in something.
    He was a pioneer of computer programming.
  • To prescribe medicine means to tell someone to take it.
    When I was sick, the doctor prescribed me flu medicine.
  • When things are respective, they relate separately to each person just mentioned.
    The boxers were told to return to their respective corners.
  • To revive someone or something means to restore health or life to them.
    She revived the feeling of warmth in her leg by rubbing it softly.
  • When rules or systems are rigid, they are severe because they cannot be changed.
    Societies often have rigid rules about the way that people are supposed to act.
  • A sequence is a number of events or things that come one after another.
    The dominos fell in a sequence of one after another.
  • To substitute something or someone means to have them take the place of another.
    When I ran out of juice, I had to substitute water to drink in the morning.
  • A surgeon is a doctor who is trained to do surgery.
    The surgeon operated on the old man’s heart.
  • Therapy is treatment for a particular physical or mental illness or condition.
    After she broke her legs, she used physical therapy to learn how to walk again.
  • To transfer something means to move it from one place to another.
    The family transferred the groceries from the shopping cart to the car.
  • A transition is a process where there is a change from one form to another.
    The weather gets colder during the transition from summer to autumn.
  • A transplant is an operation in which a damaged part of one’s body is replaced.
    The sick child needed a heart transplant to live.

The First Organ Transplant

In 1954, a man named Richard was dying of kidney disease. He wouldn’t survive for long unless he got a new kidney right away. Richard’s twin brother, Robert, was willing to donate one of his kidneys to his dying brother. At the time, however, no doctor had ever performed a successful internal organ transplant. The idea of taking an organ out of one person and putting it into another was just a fantasy. But the brothers decided to be brave and found a doctor who could make organ transplants a reality.

Since Richard and Robert were twins, their heredity was identical. They had the exact same biological traits. Even their kidneys were identical on the cellular level. Therefore, Robert’s working kidney could be substituted for Richard’s bad one. Richard’s body could adapt to the new organ if the operation was done correctly. The twins went to Dr. Murray, who was a pioneer of new surgical methods. His dynamic team of surgeons performed the transplant. Dr. Murray made sure his surgeons followed a rigid sequence of directions so that no mistakes were made. First, they made a minimal cut in Richard’s side and removed the bad kidney. Then, they made another small cut in Robert’s side, removed his kidney, and transferred it into Richard’s body. Finally, they sewed up the respective cuts. The entire operation only took about one hour.

After the surgery, it was clear that both brothers were going to be OK. The operation was confirmed a success. Richard’s new kidney worked great! Doctors prescribed medicine for the pain caused by the surgery. Since Richard was still weak, he used physical therapy to revive his strength. At last, Richard’s transition into a healthy, happy person was complete. Dr. Murray became a hero in the medical world. His success gave other doctors confidence to try organ transplants themselves. Now, doctors perform life-saving transplants and surgeries every day.

Cosmo’s Flight

  • If something is done on one’s behalf, it is done for that person by another.
    The original speaker was sick, so his son gave the speech on his behalf.
  • To flap means to move quickly up and down or from side to side.
    The tiny bird flapped its wings and ate from the flowers.
  • A glacier is a large piece of ice that moves very slowly.
    The North Pole is covered by a huge glacier.
  • The globe refers to the Earth.
    Water covers most of the globe.
  • When something is horizontal, it is flat and level with the ground.
    The Russian flag has three horizontal stripes of white, blue, and red.
  • To hum means to make a low, continuous noise.
    The man hummed his favorite song.
  • An inventory is a supply of something.
    Gwen was checking the inventory to make sure we had what we needed.
  • If a thought or feeling is inward, it is not expressed or shown to others.
    She had an inward feeling of guilt when she lied to her mother.
  • A loaf of bread is bread shaped and baked in one piece.
    Could you please buy a loaf of bread for sandwiches?
  • An oracle is person who speaks with gods and gives advice about the future.
    The king went to the oracle to ask if going to war was a good idea.
  • To orbit something means to move around it in a continuous, curving path.
    The moon orbits the Earth.
  • An overview is a general description of a situation.
    My brother gave me an overview of the important parts of the book.
  • A preview is an opportunity to see something before it is available to the public.
    The band played us a preview of their new song.
  • If something is previous, then it happened earlier in time or order.
    He turned back to the previous page to read the paragraph again.
  • To provide something means to supply it.
    Each student was provided with a test and three sharp pencils.
  • To recur means to happen more than once.
    Burglaries seem to recur over and over in our neighborhood.
  • When something is relevant, it is important to a certain person or situation.
    The thirty-year-old book about politics is still relevant to our society today.
  • A rite is a traditional ceremony carried out by a particular group or society.
    Special masks are worn during the rite when a new baby is born.
  • To stall means to stop a process and continue it at a later time.
    If you give the car a push, it won’t stall.
  • If something is supernatural, it is not real or explainable by natural law.
    The dragon had supernatural powers such as flying and breathing fire.

Cosmo’s Flight

When Cosmo woke up, he was crying. He had a dream that he was falling. This dream had recurred for the previous five nights. Cosmo was scared that his dreams were a preview of what was going to happen on his flight the next day. Cosmo was a supernatural being who was about to turn 15 years old. In his culture, boys of his age were required to participate in an important rite. They were given wings and instructed to orbit the Earth. After successful flights, the boys officially became men. Cosmo certainly wanted to be a man, but he was scared. He went to the oracle of a god named Dano. Cosmo said, “I’m not sure I can make such a long trip. What if I get tired? What if my strength stalls, and I can’t stay in the air. I’ll crash and die!”

Dano replied, “Don’t be afraid. You have all the relevant skills in your personal inventory that have been building up over the years. To ease your worry, let me tell you a little about what will happen tomorrow. You’ll begin over Africa. You’ll keep flying north until you come to the Himalayas. The mountaintops will look like small loaves of bread at such a high distance. The rivers of the world will look like pieces of blue string that cross the globe. Keep your body horizontal when flying against the winds of the Pacific Ocean. Keep your eyes open and enjoy the beauty of the Earth. You will be fine, you’ll see.”

Cosmo replied, “Thanks for the overview of my journey, I’ll do my best.” The next morning, Cosmo was provided with a divine set of wings and sent on his way. He flapped his wings and went high above the Earth. He flew over mountains, oceans, and glaciers. After a while, his inward thoughts were no longer about falling. He was actually having fun! He began to hum a song as he enjoyed the view. When he reached home, his tribe was there to greet him. The chief said, “On behalf of the tribe, I declare you a man. We’re proud of you, Cosmo!” Cosmo was proud of himself, too.

The Man and the Monkey

  • If something is aesthetic, then it is concerned with a love of beauty.
    The dresses were noteworthy for their aesthetic design.
  • If someone is arrogant, they think that they are more important than others.
    He is very arrogant. Even though he’s not the boss, he tells everyone what to do.
  • A bias is a person’s likelihood to like one thing more than anotherthing.
    The mothers had a natural bias for their own child’s picture.
  • A canyon is a narrow valley with steep walls through which a river often flows.
    The canyon was so deep that the ground inside was covered in shadow.
  • A creek is a stream or small river.
    Only small fish lived in the shallow waters of the creek.
  • A drill is a tool with a point that spins in order to make a hole.
    The carpenter used the drill to make several holes in the wood.
  • An executive is the top manager of a business.
    After twenty years at the company, he finally became the executive.
  • Fatigue is a feeling of extreme tiredness.
    After three days with little sleep, she was feeling a lot of fatigue.
  • An incline is a sharp rise in something, especially a hill or mountain.
    This mountain has one of the steepest inclines in the world.
  • If something is nasty, then it is not nice or pleasant.
    The rotten apple left a nasty taste inside her mouth.
  • To perceive something means to be aware of it.
    He was talking loudly, so he did not perceive that the music had stopped.
  • A primate is a type of mammal that includes monkeys, apes, and humans.
    Primates use their hands for such tasks as swinging from branches.
  • If something is primitive, then it is simple, basic, and not very developed.
    The computers of the 1980s are primitive compared to those of todays.
  • A stereotype is a general but often incorrect idea about a person or thing.
    There’s a stereotype that pigs are dirty animals. But they are rather clean.
  • If something is sticky, then it is covered with a substance that things stick to.
    Place the sticky part of the tape against the paper, so it will cling to the wall.
  • A termite is an insect that lives in groups and feeds on wood.
    The wood we found was full of termites.
  • If something happens thereby an action, then it is the result of that action.
    He didn’t score a goal, thereby ending his chance at setting a record.
  • A trail is a path through a wild area.
    A narrow trail cut through the field and over the hills.
  • A twig is a short and thin branch from a tree or bush.
    They started the fire with a handful of dry twigs.
  • Welfare is the health and happiness of a person or group.
    Having plenty of clean water is necessary for the welfare of people.

The Man and the Monkey

While flying over a jungle, a wealthy executive’s private plane crashed. Some of the crew were hurt, so the pilot decided to stay with them and wait for help. The arrogant executive, though, didn’t care about the welfare of the pilot and crew. Rather, he thought he could walk out of the jungle and find a town to stay in. He followed a trail through a canyon and along a creek. The jungle was actually very stunning. If the arrogant executive had stopped to look around, he might have perceived the jungle’s beauty. But he was in a nasty mood and had no care for the aesthetic value of the jungle. He continued to walk up the steep incline of the jungle’s hills.

Soon, he was lost. Several days passed, and fatigue and hunger weakened him. He was very tired and afraid. Just then, a monkey came out of the trees. It was carrying a twig covered in honey. It walked up to a mound where termites lived. He then used the twig like a drill to make a hole in the mound. Then very carefully, it removed the twig from the hole. The sticky twig was covered with termites. Instead of eating the bugs, the monkey offered them to the executive, but he didn’t want what the monkey offered. He shouted at the monkey, “Get away from me, you stupid primate!”

The executive’s stereotype of the monkey was wrong. The monkey was not stupid. It knew how to find food, whereas the executive did not. He refused the help of the monkey, thereby leaving himself to starve. When the executive was finally found, he was very skinny and sick. He had not eaten for a very long time. Because he held a bias against the primitive ways of the monkey, he had gone hungry and almost died. The executive didn’t understand that it was his arrogant attitude that had caused all of his problems.

The Resourceful Landlord

  • If someone is bankrupt, then they are unable to pay their debts.
    The store had few customers and soon went bankrupt.
  • To conform to rules or laws is to obey them.
    The new student had to conform to the school’s dress code.
  • To employ someone means to give work to them.
    The bookstore employed two full-time clerks.
  • To expel someone means to force them to leave a place.
    Since he would not follow the rules, the principal had to expel the student.
  • An extension is a part added to something to give it more time or space.
    My parents decided to add an extension to our house for the new baby.
  • If something is forthcoming, then it is about to happen in the future.
    Some economists predicted that the forthcoming world economy would be severe.
  • To furnish means to put furniture in a house or room.
    Most homes are furnished with tables, chairs, and beds.
  • Hygiene is the conditions or methods needed for health and cleanliness.
    People who brush their teeth at least twice a day are practicing good hygiene.
  • If something is hygienic, then it is clean and unlikely to cause disease.
    My sister works very hard to keep her entire home as hygienic as possible.
  • A landlord is a man who rents property to a person.
    The landlord collected everyone’s rent money on the first day of every month.
  • To lease means to rent property, usually an apartment or land.
    When the family first leased the apartment, the rent was very low.
  • If something is mandatory, then it is required by law.
    It’s mandatory that everyone be at least sixteen to drive a car in the US.
  • To mend something means to fix it when it is broken or damaged.
    Mother mended the rip in my pants with a piece of cloth.
  • A mortgage is a loan for property, especially homes and businesses.
    When they bought their new home, the married couple had to sign a mortgage.
  • Personnel are employees in a business.
    When business increased, we had to hire more personnel.
  • Plumbing is the system of pipes used in a home to supply water.
    When the plumbing stopped working, no one was allowed to use the toilets.
  • A tenant is a person who rents property from a landlord.
    The new tenants moved into the house across the street.
  • If something is trendy, then it is very popular and new.
    Carlo bought a trendy new car.
  • A utility is a business that supplies services such as water or electricity.
    If you don’t pay the utilities, you may have your electricity turned off.
  • Whereby means by which or through which.
    The mayor had a new bridge built whereby the citizens could cross the river.

The Resourceful Landlord

A kind landlord was afraid that he would lose his apartment building. He needed to make some mandatory repairs to the old building, or his tenants would have to leave by the end of the month. Without tenants to lease the rooms, the landlord would be unable to pay his mortgage. He’d be bankrupt, and the bank would take his building.

But he didn’t have the money whereby he could employ the personnel needed to make the repairs. It would seem like he did not want to conform to the city’s codes before the forthcoming inspection. He had requested an extension, but it was denied by the city. He held a meeting with his tenants and explained the unfortunate situation. “If the building does not meet the appropriate standards for safety and hygiene,” he said, “the city will expel everyone.” The tenants were all sad for the kind old man.

“Maybe we can help,” the hairdresser who lived on the first floor stated. The other tenants agreed. One tenant had worked for the city’s utilities. He knew a lot about plumbing, so that’s how he helped. Another tenant was a carpenter; he mended the holes in the floor and walls. Others cleaned the building from top to bottom so that it was more hygienic. They even furnished some of the apartments with new beds, dressers, and chairs. When they were done, all of the people dispersed, and the landlord went home to rest.

When the deadline of the inspection arrived, the apartment building was hygienic and safe. The landlord couldn’t believe it. His old building now looked like one of the trendiest buildings in town. The building passed its inspection, and the landlord and the tenants had a big party. “Thankyou all so much,” the landlord said during the party. “I could never have done it by myself. But by working together, we now all have a beautiful place to live.”

How Comet Got His Tail

  • If something is astronomical, then it is extremely large.
    It’s an astronomical distance between the Milky Way galaxy and the nearest galaxy.
  • An atom is the smallest unit of a substance.
    A molecule consists of a combination of two or more atoms.
  • Breadth is the distance from one side to the other side of something.
    The breadth of the northern wall of the house is twenty meters.
  • A circumference is the distance completely around a circular object.
    The circumference of the Earth is obviously much larger than a baseball’s.
  • A comet is an object in space made of ice and rock with a tail of glowing dust.
    Comets take many decades to complete an orbit around a star.
  • A crater is a large hole in a planet’s or moon’s surface.
    They could clearly see the big crater on the moon through the telescope.
  • A crescent is the curved shape lit on the moon’s face during its early and late stages.
    Ten days ago the entire moon was bright, but now only a small crescent is shining.
  • Debris is the small pieces scattered from something wrecked or destroyed.
    The debris from the cube scattered on the floor.
  • Despair is the complete loss of hope.
    After the other company won the account, our salespeople were filled with despair.
  • To embed something means to place it firmly within a surrounding thing.
    The logger embedded the ax into the wood after chopping several logs.
  • A fragment is a small part of something.
    After the light broke, there were fragments of glass to clean up.
  • A galaxy is any extremely large collection of star systems.
    Our solar system is located in the outer area of our galaxy.
  • If something is gigantic, then it is extremely large.
    Some dinosaurs were so gigantic that they were the size of buildings.
  • Gloom is a state of being almost completely dark.
    In the gloom of the morning, it was difficult to see the boat on the lake.
  • To radiate means to send out energy or heat.
    The heat from the fireplace radiated throughout the room.
  • To roam means to move around without a plan or purpose.
    All day the cows roamed around the field eating grass.
  • If something is solitary, then it is lonely or the only one.
    The only thing in the room was a solitary chair.
  • The spectrum is the full range of color ranging from red to violet.
    You can see the entire spectrum in a rainbow.
  • A sphere is a three-dimensional round shape, like a ball.
    The balloons were inflated into a variety of colorful spheres.
  • Status is the position of something or someone in relation to others.
    She had achieved the status of being the smartest girl in the class.

How Comet Got His Tail

A solitary rock roamed through the cold gloom of outer space. It slowly drifted through the debris of broken asteroids with a feeling of sadness. In the vast and beautiful galaxy, it was only a tiny rock. It felt like an insignificant atom. In its journeys it encountered many amazing objects. It flew by beautiful crescent moons that were covered with craters and moon dust. “Why can’t I be as beautiful as them?” it thought. The rock passed a gigantic planet. The sphere had a circumference hundreds of times larger than the breadth of the small rock.

“Why can’t I be as large as that?” it wondered. The rock was Riled with despair. It was surrounded by beauty and greatness, yet it was just a small and ugly fragment of rock. One day, it approached the area of an astronomical star. “What’s wrong?” the star asked. “Oh, I wish I had a higher status in the galaxy. All the other objects are so beautiful and large,” the rock replied. “But I’m just an ugly rock.” The star considered the problem.

At last it said, “You don’t have to worry anymore. I think I can help.” The star radiated its light brighter and hotter than it had ever done before. “Come a little closer,” the star said to the rock. The rock drifted closer to the star. Suddenly, the ice that was embedded in the rock’s tiny cracks melted and became steam. Then the steam extended behind the comet to form a brilliant tail. The tail shined with all the colors of the spectrum. The little rock had become a beautiful comet. It looked so amazing. It realized that the star helped it change its appearance. “Thank you,” the comet said and then flew away with its new beautiful tail following behind it like a galactic cape.

The New Bioco

  • An acid is a chemical that can burn or dissolve other substances.
    In chemistry class, we mixed two acids together and watched the reaction.
  • An administration is the group of people who manage a company or organization.
    She hoped she could be promoted to a job in the administration.
  • Administrative describes anything related to managing a company or organization.
    I work as an administrative assistant to the owner of the company.
  • Biotechnology is the use of living parts, such as cells, in industry and technology.
    Researchers at the biotechnology company use bacteria to make medicine.
  • Cholesterol is a substance in fat, tissues, and blood of all animals.
    When people have too much cholesterol, they are at a high risk for heart problems.
  • A coalition is a group of people or organizations working for a common purpose.
    The companies formed a coalition to make trade less expensive.
  • When something is deceptive, it encourages one to believe something that is false.
    The scary-looking man’s appearance is deceptive, but he is actually very nice.
  • Diabetes is a medical condition where a person has too much sugar in their blood.
    Overweight people are more likely to suffer from diabetes than slimmer ones.
  • To eliminate something that is unwanted means to completely remove it.
    Wearing a seatbelt eliminates some of the dangers of driving a car.
  • Erosion is the destruction of rock or soil due to flowing water or weather.
    Canyons are formed because rivers of fast-moving water caused erosion.
  • Ethics are moral beliefs or rules about right or wrong.
    The act of stealing certainly doesn’t go against some people’s ethics.
  • If something is explicit, it is very clear, open, and truthful.
    The man gave a very explicit account of the car accident.
  • A framework is a set of rules or ideas that people use to solve problems.
    His ideas fit into the framework of a successful business plan.
  • To manufacture something means to make it in a factory.
    My father’s company manufactures steel building materials.
  • A mechanism is a part of a machine that performs a certain function.
    I can’t open my car door because the locking mechanism is broke.
  • To minimize means to reduce something to the lowest possible level.
    I checked my homework twice to minimize errors I might have made.
  • Nectar is a sweet liquid produced by flowers that bees and other insects collect.
    Sees use nectar to make their honey.
  • A notion is an idea or belief about something.
    I have a notion that this route would get us to the beach.
  • When things are prone to some bad thing, they are likely affected by it.
    Some people are more prone to catching colds than others.
  • When something is straightforward, it is good because it is easy to understand.
    The teacher’s grading system was straightforward and fair.

The New Bioco

Jack got a new job at a biotechnology company called Bioco. Bioco manufactured drugs to treat diabetes and high cholesterol. Jack’s job was to use a tiny mechanism to get nectar from flowers. The nectar was a main ingredient in the drugs. Jack liked his job, and he thought that Bioco was a caring company. However, Jack soon learned that the company wasn’t as kind as he first thought. Bioco’s motto was “Make the Earth a Better Place.” However, this motto was deceptive. The company actually did a number of really bad things to the environment. The company produced a lot of smog and harmful acid. Bioco poured the acid in a nearby river, which caused erosion and made fish prone to illness.

After a few weeks at the new job, Jack saw all the bad things Bioco was doing. He had always had strong ethics, and he knew he had to do something. One day, while the Bioco workers were eating in the cafeteria, Jack stood up and gave a speech. He said, “My fellow coworkers, I know you have all seen the evil things our company is doing. I have a notion that we can fix them if we form a coalition. We can go to the administration and tell them we’ll quit if they don’t eliminate the problems. They’ll have no choice but to listen to us.”

Jack explained what they were to do. His coworkers liked his explicit plan. They went to the administrative offices and demanded that Bioco stop damaging the environment, or they all would quit. One supervisor said to them, “Thank you for being straightforward about this issue. Since I can’t afford to lose all of you workers, I guess we’ll just have to fix things.” Jack, his supervisor, and his coworkers spent the next month designing a new framework for the company. They cleaned up the acid from the river and minimized the amount of air pollution the company released. At last, the company motto became apt.